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FAR Literature Review - Audit Production Prof. Joseph Gerakos PhD Prof. Chad Syverson Ulrike Thürheimer Details

Production is the process by which inputs are transformed into outputs through factors of production. In the case of an audit, audit effort (labor and time) is expended to produce assurance over client financial statements (O’Keefe, Simunic, and Stein 1994). As is typical for services, labor is the most important factor in the production of audits. Although audit production is crucial to understanding the economics of auditing, the literature on audit production is sparse due to the difficulty of observing and measuring the factors of production. Specifically, the lack of access to internal audit firm information makes it difficult for researchers to observe and measure production inputs. Moreover, the credence good nature of an audit makes it difficult to observe audit output (i.e., the level of assurance).


Prof. Joseph Gerakos PhD

Associate Professor of Business Administration Tuck School of business

Prof. Chad Syverson
Ulrike Thürheimer
FAR Literature Review - The impact of auditor interactions on audit quality Prof. dr. Eddy Cardinaels Prof. dr. Kristof Stouthuysen Dr. Evelien Reusen Details

The judgment and decision-making literature in auditing largely focuses on individual auditor judgments. However, auditors do not work in isolation. They interact with other auditors in audit engagements and with other participants in the financial reporting process. For this reason, scholars have called for more research on how the people, tasks, and environment that auditors interact with influence their performance and hence, the audit quality of their work.

This review identifies three specific issues related to these influences that, we believe, warrant additional research and consideration. The first two issues relate to between-auditor interactions within the audit firm. The third issue relates to interactions with groups outside the firm.


Prof. dr. Eddy Cardinaels

Eddy Cardinaels (1975) is full Professor of accounting at Tilburg University and part-time professor at KU Leuven. His work combines new insights from psychology and behavioral economics to study how different information presentation (ABC, BSC, summaries of earnings releases) can affect decision making of managers within companies. Other experimental work focuses on drivers of honest reporting and social motives in inter-firm negotiations. He also conducts archival work on corporate governance examining how social connections between board members affect financial reporting, how companies use their networks to engage in tax avoidance and factors that drive (excess) compensation. Eddy has published in leading journals such as The Accounting Review, Journal of Accounting Research, and Accounting, Organizations and Society, and Review of Accounting Studies. Eddy’s work has been recognized with several prestigious awards including the greatest impact on practice award (AAA).

Prof. dr. Kristof Stouthuysen

Professor in Accounting and Control at Vlerick Business School and KU Leuven.

Dr. Evelien Reusen
FAR Literature Review - The Effect of Audit Culture on Audit Quality Dr. Katlijn Haesebrouck Prof. Mark E. Peecher PhD Prof. dr. Jasmijn Bol Prof. dr. Isabella Grabner Details

In 2014, the professional body for accountants in the Netherlands (NBA) indicated that audit quality did not live up to the public’s expectations. One of the main corrective measures suggested by the NBA was an improvement in audit culture (NBA, 2014). Although audit culture can be an important determinant of audit quality, the extant academic literature has not payed much attention to audit culture. This paper provides an overview of the literature on audit quality and audit culture as a determinant of audit quality.


Dr. Katlijn Haesebrouck

Assistant Professor Accounting & Information Management, School of Business and Economics, Maastricht University

Prof. Mark E. Peecher PhD

Mark E. Peecher, CPA, is a professor of accountancy and a Deloitte Teaching Fellow at the University of Illinois, specializing in behavioral auditing and accounting research. He holds a bachelor’s, master’s, and Ph.D. degrees in accountancy from Illinois. Prior to returning to his alma mater, he was a faculty member at the University of Washington. An active member in the AAA’s Audit Section, Mark currently serves as the Audit Section’s past president.

Professor Peecher’s business-press writings about auditing have appeared in The Wall Street Journal, and his scholarly writings have appeared in AccountingOrganizations & SocietyAuditing: A Journal of Practice & TheoryContemporary Accounting ResearchInternational Journal of AuditingJournal of Accounting ResearchOrganizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, and The Accounting Review. He has presented his research at numerous conferences, consortia, and universities, and he has served on the editorial boards at Auditing: A Journal of Practice & TheoryThe Accounting Review, and Issues in Accounting Education. Mark enjoys teaching both undergraduate courses and doctoral seminars related to auditing. He particularly likes helping to mentor doctoral students, three of whom have won outstanding doctoral dissertation awards.

Prof. dr. Jasmijn Bol

Professor Jasmijn Bol teaches Accounting and Controls for Operational Risk, a master’s-level class about risk and control systems at Tulane University, Freeman School of Business, USA. Her classes go beyond lectures and textbooks, incorporating interactive pedagogy and lessons drawn from her own research.

Born and raised in the Netherlands, Professor Bol has studied at universities in The Netherlands, Spain and in the U.S., and she consistently presents her research to communities across the globe. Professor Bol’s research focuses on subjectivity in compensation contracting, and she has authored and co-authored several articles that have appeared in prestigious scholarly journals. She has also earned awards for her teaching and research.

Prof. dr. Isabella Grabner

Isabella Grabner is a Professer of Management Control and Strategy Implementation at WU (Vienna University of Economics and Business).

She holds a Master’s degree in International Business from the University of Vienna and a PhD in Business Administration from WU Vienna (Title of dissertation "Creativity and Control: Conflicting Objectives?"). Before joining WU Vienna, she was a tenured faculty member at the Department of Accounting and Information Management at Maastricht University School of Business and Economics. She has also worked as visiting researcher at Emory University Goizueta Business School and the University of Technology Sydney.

FAR Literature Review - How is auditor commercialism related to audit quality and efficiency? Prof. William Ciconte PhD Dr. Justin Leiby Prof. dr. Marleen Willekens Details


Prof. William Ciconte PhD

Assistant Professor of Accountancy University of Illinois

Dr. Justin Leiby

Associate Professor of Accountancy and Professor Ken Perry Faculty Fellow University of Illinois

Prof. dr. Marleen Willekens

Full Professor of Accounting and Auditing at KU Leuven

FAR Literature Review - do private firm audits serve a different purpose? Dr. Mahmoud Gad Dr. Robin Litjens RA Prof. dr. Jeroen Suijs Details

The Dutch market for mandatory audit services is heterogenous and includes publicly listed and private firms. While private firms dominate the market, existing audit research focusses primarily on listed firms where audit demand originates from external stakeholders such as shareholders assisting them in the monitoring of management. This is surprising as private firms represent a significant portion of the economy in most countries.

Private firms generally face different incentives in terms of accounting and auditing demand. For example, private firms that are not run by owner-manager may have agency conflicts that drives the demand for audit. However, in private owner-managed firms external audit demand can arise from other, more internal, factors that are difficult to observe and less well understood, such as compensation for lacking internal controls. Legislators across the world seem to acknowledge this variation and mandate audits to a varying degree, for instance dependent on private firm size. Yet, institutional heterogeneity is large, varying from mandating audits for very few (e.g., United States) to all (e.g., Sweden) private firms.

Furthering our understanding of internal value factors of private firm external audits and their effect on audit pricing, audit effort and audit quality is therefore relevant. It can assist regulators in determining the scope (which private firms) and features of a private firm audit (e.g. independence regulation, exclusion of certain non-audit services). Understanding internal value factors can assist auditors and audit firms in how to price and ‘produce’ private firm audits and the effects of these decisions on audit quality.


Dr. Mahmoud Gad

Lecturer, Lancaster University 

Dr. Robin Litjens RA

Assistant Professor of Accounting at Tilburg University

Prof. dr. Jeroen Suijs

Professor of Financial Accounting at Erasmus University Rotterdam

FAR Literature Review – The Effects of Expert Status on the Audit of Complex Estimates Prof. dr. Anna Gold Prof. dr. Kathryn Kadous Dr. Justin Leiby Details


Prof. dr. Anna Gold

Anna Gold obtained her Ph.D. from the University of Amsterdam in 2004, worked as an assistant professor at Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University for six years and is currently professor at the Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam where she teaches Auditing at the BSc and MSc level, as well as PhD courses in Auditing and Experimental Methods. Anna’s research interests are in the judgment and decision-making area, primarily applied to the field of Auditing. Her research has focused on the impact of regulatory changes, on judgments and decisions of auditors and financial statement users. Her recent work focuses on how auditors and audit firms handle errors and whether varying the error management climate affects auditors’ error reporting willingness and audit firm learning. Anna’s work and her publications have appeared in a number of prestigious journals such as The Accounting Review, Accounting Horizons, Journal of Business Ethics, and International Journal of Auditing.

Prof. dr. Kathryn Kadous

Kathryn Kadous is the Schaefer Chaired Professor of Accounting and the Director and Associate Dean of the Ph.D. Program at Emory University's Goizueta Business School. She earned a PhD from the University of Illinois. Prior to that, she worked as an auditor and controller. Professor Kadous' research considers judgment and decision-making issues in auditing and accounting. Her current research is focused primarily on using psychology theory to improve auditor decision making and on identifying the antecedents of auditor skepticism. Professor Kadous' research has been published in The Accounting Review, Contemporary Accounting Research, Journal of Accounting Research, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, The Journal of Behavioral Finance, and Auditing: A Journal of Practice and Theory. 

Professor Kadous has served two terms as an editor for The Accounting Review and two terms as an editor for Auditing: A Journal of Practice & Theory. She serves on several editorial boards and has served on various research and publications related committees and tasks forces for the American Accounting Association (AAA) and the Auditing and Accounting, Behavior, and Organizations Sections of the AAA. She is currently Vice-President (Academic) of the Auditing Section of the American Accounting Association.

Dr. Justin Leiby

Associate Professor of Accountancy and Professor Ken Perry Faculty Fellow University of Illinois

Literature review on the relationship between audit quality and non-audit services (English) Prof. dr. Jan Bouwens Details


Prof. dr. Jan Bouwens

Academic board member and managing director FAR

Literature review on the relationship between audit quality and non-audit services (Dutch) Prof. dr. Jan Bouwens Details


Prof. dr. Jan Bouwens

Academic board member and managing director FAR